Friday 13 May 2016

Project Rome - The Campaigns in Hispania 193 BC to 181 BC.

Timeline Campaigns in Hispania
Livy, History of Rome

193 BC.
Tribes resume hostilities after the departure of Marcus Cato; these conflicts were contained by Sextus Digitius, prætor of Hither Spain, though some with unfavourable results. Publius Cornelius Scipio, son of Cneius gained success on the other side of the Iberus. - Book XXXV, I.

Caius Flaminius took Ilucia of the Oretanians, while Marcus Fulvius fought a pitched battle and gained victory against the Vaccæans, Vectonians, and Celtiberians near the town of Toletum.  - Book XXXV, VII.

192 BC.
Lots were cast and Marcus Bæbius Tamphilus receives Hither Spain; and Marcus Atilius Serranus, Farther Spain. . Flaminius and Fulvius continue their commands. . - Book XXXV, XX.

Caius Flaminius takes Litabrum and captures Corribilo while Marcus Fulvius is victorious capturing the towns of Vescelia and Holo. – Book XXXV, XXII.

191 BC
 Lucius Æmilius Paullus, assigned to Farther Spain, took over the command of Marcus Fulvius, pro-praetor. Three thousand newly raised foot and three hundred horse, of whom two-thirds should be Latine allies, accompanied Paulus from Italy.  - Book XXXVI, II.

190 BC
The present pro-consuls of the two Spains were to continue command for another year and keep the same armies. - Book XXXVII, II.

The army, under the command of Lucius Æmilius, proconsul, had been defeated in a battle with the Lacitanians near the town of Lycon, in the country of the Vastitans, leaving six thousand Romans dead. The remainder, by long marches fled back to friendly country. – Book XXXVII, XLVI.

189 BC
Lucius Bæbius was given reinforcements of one thousand Roman foot and fifty horse with six thousand Latine foot and two hundred horse, so each of the Spains would have a full legion. – Book XXXVII, L.

New lots were cast and Lucius Manlius received Hither Spain and Caius Antinius, Farther Spain.

187 BC
Both Caius Atinius and Lucius Manlius sent dispatches informing Rome of rebellion in Celtiberia and Lusitania, however, the senate delayed action until the new elections. - Book XXXIX, VII.

186 BC
On the praetors casting lots for their provinces, Quintius Crispinus was given Hither Spain and Caius Calpurnius Piso, Farther Spain. – Book XXXIX, VIII.

By decree of the senate, two new legions were raised to which twenty thousand foot, and one thousand three hundred horse would come from the allies and Latines.  – Book XXXIX, XX.
In Hither Spain, Lucius Manlius Acidinus fought a battle with the Celtiberians ending in a draw. The Celtiberians, reinforced attacked the Romans near the town of Calaguris. – Book XXXIX, XXI.

185 BC
This year Caius Calpurnius and Lucius Quintius, the two prætors in Spain, left winter quarters and assembled at Bæturia. Near towns of Hippo and Toletum, a fight developed between the foraging parties which escalated to an irregular battle ending with both Roman armies routed. – Book XXXIX, XXX.

184 BC
New assignments, the consuls Aulus Terentius Varro received Hither Spain and Publius Sempronius Longus, Farther Spain. The senate decreed that the prætors should enlist four thousand Roman foot and four hundred horse with five thousand foot, and five hundred horse of the Latine confederates to take with them to Spain. - Book XXXIX, XXXVIII.

In Farther Spain, the Lusitanians, weakened by their losses remained quiet. In Hither Spain, Aulus Terentius besieged and took the town of Corbia, in Suessetania. – Book XXXIX, XLII.

183 BC
The prætors, who held them the year before would continue for one year more. – Book XXXIX, XLV.

182 BC
The consuls and prætors settled the distribution of their provinces, Marcus Valerius received Hither Spain and Marcus Fulvius Flaccus; Farther Spain. The war still continued with the Celtiberians and in the farther province as a consequence of the long sickness of the prætor, experienced inactivity. New troops were raised for both provinces; four thousand foot and two hundred horse, of Roman citizens; and, of the allies, seven thousand foot, and three hundred horse. – Book XL, I.

Fulvius Flaccus besieged Urbicua in Hither Spain. Despite a relief force of Celtiberians, Fulvius took the town and sent his forces into winter quarters, Publius Manlius did the same.  – Book XL, XVI.

181 BC
In the two Spains, the prætor’s terms were extended and an augmentation was voted for them; three thousand Roman foot, with two hundred horse, and six thousand foot and three hundred horse of the Latine confederates. – Book XL, XVIII.

In the summer the Celtiberians assembled no less than thirty-five thousand men and against these Quintus Fulvius Flaccus marched his army to the town of Æbura in Carpetania. – Book XL, XXX.

Using a flank march to surprise the enemy, Flaccus defeated the Celtiberians; twenty-three thousand were killed, four thousand eight hundred taken prisoner and ninety-eight standards taken.  – Book XL, XXXII.

Flaccus through Carpetania against Contrebia and captured it killing twelve thousand, capturing five thousand and sixty-two standards. Marching through Celtiberia, Flaccus ravaged the country and reduced a great number of forts. – Book XL, XXXIII.

In the farther province, Manlius fought several successful battles with the Lusitanians. – Book XL, XXXIV.

New lots were cast; Lucius Postumius would receive Farther Spain and Tiberius Sempronius, Hither Spain. The senate awarded a thanksgiving for the peace in Hispania and new legions would be raised to replace those in the two Spains. Number of troops fell short due to the pestilence raging through Italy for the third year.  – Book XL, XXXVI.

Before the arrival of his replacement, Fulvius left his winter quarters to lay waste the farther part of Celtiberia, whose inhabitants had not come in to make submission - Book XL, XXXIX.

Fulvius, embarking the disbanded soldiers in the fleet, set sail for Rome, while Sempronius led the legions into Celtiberia. – Book XL, XL.

Part two.

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